Wisdom, on the other hand, needs no vehement assertion. It is impersonal, straightforward, self-evident and humble. Moreover, it is the product of direct lived experience which, in yogic
parlance, is called Gnosis - Knowledge. The conclusions set forth in Ms. Norelli-Bachelet's
article."Cosmology in the Rig Veda"  arise from her direct yogic experience and reveal the
deepest secrets of this ancient text. In contrast, Mr. Rajaram is a mathematician and historian, not
a yogi. His specious claims give no indication of having any direct insight into the inner meaning
of these ancient scriptures. Yet he condemns with unquestioned authority the cosmological
wisdom set forth in Ms. Norelli-Bachelet's article. For people of knowledge, this kind of arrogant
punditry is simply unacceptable and must be confronted in all particulars.
We need not read more than two sentences of Rajaram's article before we recoil from the
repellent odor of xenophobia. This is immediately followed in the next paragraph by a
condemnation of Ms. Norelli-Bachelet's statements concerning the cosmic meaning of the Rig
Veda as preposterous. Rajaram goes on to call her a colonialist thinker and a charlatan imposing
medieval astrological conceptions on the Vedic scriptures with which, he says, she is entirely
unfamiliar. He continues in this condescending vein saying:
For those who are not immediately put off by his aggressive and arrogant tone, a review of the
facts will put to rest any notion of credibility in the rest of what Rajaram writes.
Numerous students and devotees throughout the world familiar with Ms. Norelli-Bachelet's
writings know her to be the preeminent authority on Sri Aurobindo's work and message. She has
written over a dozen books and numerous articles on Sri Aurobindo's and the Mother's yoga and
has taken his commentaries on the Rig Veda to even greater heights, the equal of which have yet
to be seen. Rajaram, having no such bona fides can only rely on posturing and bluster to support
his claims. Since his strongest objections are based upon a mulish disbelief in the cosmological
knowledge contained in the Veda, let us carefully examine what Ms. Norelli-Bachelet has written
in the light of the Vedic scriptures themselves.
While the complete text of her article is attached as an addendum below, we may summarize her
conclusions by stating that her research into the Vedas reveals that the Rishis were in possession
of a universal language of initiates based upon the zodiacal archetypes. This together with a
profound knowledge of the laws of correspondence and equivalency formed the basis of their
thought. Contrary to Mr. Rajaram's assertions, this zodiacal knowledge has nothing to do with
astrology as we know it today.
No one will deny that the ancient Rishis were concerned with the deepest truths of reality. It
follows therefore that the proto-Vedic realization was entirely Cosmogonic. "The Hymn of
Creation" speaks to the depth of their inquiry into the origins of the existence itself. But it is the
verses to 'Skambha' in the Atharvaveda that reveal the greatest mystery.
Skambha takes us into the very heart of creation and unveils the mystery of 'everything that
moves and breathes'. Its ontological significance as the 'Support of the Worlds' follows upon the
Rishi's declaration that the universe was born and developed from a core, a central point (Rig Veda
X -149) as if the 'hub of a wheel'. Sri Aurobindo affirms this vivid imagery when he writes:
"Consciousness is Concentric, It has always a Center and a Periphery." All that happens in the
periphery extends from and has its origin in the Hub or Center. Through the laws of
correspondence and the Rishis liberal use of parallelisms, we discover that this Cosmological
principle holds equally true for planetary, individual and organic systems. One need only look up
at the Sun and our own solar system to see the eternal pattern that inspired this integral vision.
When Ms. Norelli-Bachelet writes of the 'four oceans', or the 'eastern and western oceans'; or in
the Atharvaveda 'northern, upper ocean'. All of these are clear and unmistakable pointers to the
cosmological content of the Veda. They cannot be interpreted otherwise. Specifically, they are
references to the four Cardinal Points on that ecliptic "wheel of twelve bands with its three-hundred and sixty spokes" upon which the Earth is balanced as she voyages around the cosmic
ocean in her orbit around the Sun. And this is not simply poetic imagery but an invitation from
the Rishis for us to recreate this journey in ourselves. As the renown scholar Mircea Eliade
"We must never lose sight of the fact that the tantric universe is made up of an endless
series of analogies, homologies, and symmetries; starting from any level, one can
establish mystical communication with the others, in order finally to reduce them to unity
and master them… for it is by repeating and reliving the cosmic Great Time, the periodic
cycles of the universe that we are able to cosmicize the body and the psycho-mental life."
[emphasis mine] Mircea Eliade - Yoga
As Ms. Norelli-Bachelet explains and Eliade agrees, it is the lived human experience of this
cosmic voyage through the months and the years that the Rishis held as the 'secret of secrets',
the mightiest work, the fairest achievement and it hinges on the conquest of time. This is not
conjecture, it is Veda - Knowledge and these eternal cosmological truths can be realized by
anyone who is willing to follow the ancient path.
In the final analysis, Rajaram's attack on Ms. Norelli-Bachelet is baseless and cruel. His
arguments simply do not meet the test of knowledge. In Vedic terminology he is the serpent
Vritra, a coverer of truth, who ignorantly thinks he can elevate his own stature and authority by
denouncing a sage. How pathetic. It puts one in mind of those lesser birds who strafe and heckle
the Eagle as she cut her magnificent arc through the sky.
 Indology: Skeletons in the closet
Author: N S Rajaram
Date: October 13, 2002
Introduction: The history and historiography of India still carry the colonial imprint. This has allowed
unqualified individuals to comment an India simply because they are Westerners.
In an article "Cosmology in the Rigveda- The Third Premise" (The Hindu, 9-7-2002) Patriazia Norelli-Bachelet made sweeping statements regarding the Rigveda and its cosmic meaning-through her
'cosmic' interpretation boiled down to imposing astrological readings on the hymns with ideas that came
much later. She also made the preposterous claim: "The ancients were not at all concerned with keeping
records for posterity as we do today." The very fact that generations of Vedic priests took extraordinary
pains to preserve the Vedas is proof enough that they did want to preserve them for posterity. How else
did they survive?
The idea that Indians have no sense of history is a European conceit-not any Indian view'. It was Karl
Marx, not any ancient Indian sage who insisted that India had no history, and what is called history is
simply a record of successive intruders. This has now become the central dogma of the Marxist school
as indeed it has for the inheritors of the Eurocentric colonial thinking like Michael Witzel. This is what
brings together the Indian Marxists and some Western Indologists on the issue of the Aryan invasion (or
migration). And despite her claims to being a cosmic thinker, Patrizia Norelli-Bachelet's constructions
place her squarely in the same camp. (And yet the same people criticize the Hindus. for raising the
history of Ayodhya, Somnath and a thousand other temple destructions!)
Even more absurdly, Norelli-Bachelet invoked Sri Aurobindo's Secret of the Veda as authority for her
'cosmic' in reality astrological interpretations, for there is no suggestion of astrology in that work. Her
exercise gives rise to anachronisms like imposing the much later zodiac (rashi) on Vedic readings, of
which there is no hint in the Vedas of Sri Aurobindo. Even the later Vedanga Jyotisha uses the ancient
nakshatra system and not the rashis, which came more than a thousand years later. All this suggests
that Norelli-Bachelet is not at all familiar with the original sources or Sri Aurobindo but has simply used
them to give authority and an appearance of authenticity to her own views. This smacks of a charlatan-not a scholar.
But Norelli-Bachelet doesn't stop here: her anachronistic exercise of imposing medieval astrology on
ancient texts, with which she is entirely unfamiliar, has led her to insist on reading Vedic oceanic
references as strictly celestial myths. While such symbolism does exist in the Rigveda, the very fact that
the Vedic poets mythologized in terms of the sea and ships shows they were intimately familiar with
them. Myths and legends associated with the elephant headed God Ganesha were not created by
people who had never seen the elephant; nor was the Sphinx created by Egyptians who had never seen
The fact is that oceanic references in the Rigveda cannot so easily be brushed aside just because they
are inconvenient to the upholders of a -particular theory-a theory that holds that the Vedas originated
outside India. The motive behind such negationist arguments is clear: following the collapse of the "No
horse at Harappa" argument, denying the ocean in the Rigveda has become the last resort for placing
the Vedic origins outside India. So "No Harappan horse" has given way to "No Vedic ocean", not to
mention the denial of the Sarasvati River in the Rigveda. This, the essence of Witzel's 'philology', is
nothing but negationism.
The real issue here is not that such absurd theories continue to be projected, but that a person of Norelli-Bachelet's credentials or lack of both credentials and credibility-is able to get prominent space in a major
English language publication in India for the sole reason that she is a Westerner. Nor is she is the only
one. Steve Farmer, a California computer programmer, became a hero overnight to a segment of the
Indian media simply by virtue of his being a Westerner and anti-Hindu to boot. (Farmer may not like
being called a computer programmer, but that is the only thing about him we are certain about. At
various times he has claimed to be a comparative historian, Sinologist, historian of science, a graphics
expert and as the occasion suited him, an Indologists.) It seems that to write about India-and taken
seriously-all one needs are presumption and the right skin color.
History or colonial theology?
Setting aside such absurdities, what is really at issue is the teaching of history and creating suitable
methodology for the study of ancient India. The Vedas are part of Indian history and this history cannot
be based on wild speculation in the name of cosmology or twisted in response to cries of 'saffronization'.
In order to place history and historiography on a firm footing, it is important to focus on fundamentals-both facts and methodology. The last few decades have thrown up new data from diverse sources that
pose a major challenge to historians and old theories. In order to preserve historical methods that some
scholars are comfortable with, there are continuing attempts to negate data that contradict existing
theories; Michael Witzel, Romila Thapar and Irfan Habib are among prime exponents of such
negationism. This has led to scientifically unsupportable claims like Eurasian horses undergoing drastic
anatomical change by shedding ribs upon entering India, and the attribution of genetic causes to man-made social classifications like caste. Speculation in the name of cosmology is the worst of these. It has
no place in history, especially in teaching children,
The current debate, ranging from Vedic interpretations to scientific contradictions, brings an important
point to light: it is not enough to correct or remove distortions like the Aryan invasion; nothing less than a
fundamental re-examination of the underlying historiography is called for. Otherwise, more speculations
and conjectures that contradict empirical data are inevitable. When we do take a close look at colonial
historiography, two facts stand out. First, the use of education as a political tool to sustain European rule.
Secondly, the application of a theological approach to history by scholars more familiar with Christian
beliefs than science. This included such luminaries as F. Max Muller who rejected Darwin's Theory of
Evolution in favour of the Biblical Creation Theory, which holds that the world was created with all its life
forms at 9.00 AM, October 23, 4004 BC. Lord Macaulay, who sponsored Max Muller, made no secret of
his plan to use education as a tool in colonial administration. In his own words: "We must at present do
our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern; a class
of persons, Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect." This
was an integral part of the British divide and rule strategy, for it created a privileged elite that had a stake
in colonial rule. As Lord Elphinstone, Governor of Bombay, observed, "Divide and rule was Roman
policy, and it should be ours."
But Macaulay and other educators went further. They wanted Christianity to replace Hinduism, which
they felt would cement the rulers and the Indian elite further. In a letter to his father, a Protestant
minister, Macaulay wrote: "Our English schools are flourishing wonderfully. The effect of this education
on the Hindus is prodigious. ...It is my belief that if our plans of education are followed up, there will not
be a single idolator among the respectable classes in Bengal thirty years hence." And his protege Max
Muller happily concurred in a letter to his wife: "It (The Rigveda) is the root of their religion and to show
them what the root is, I feel sure, is the only way of uprooting all that has sprung from it during the last
three thousand years." Two years later he also wrote the Duke of Argyle, the then acting Secretary of
State for India: "The ancient religion of India is doomed. And if Christianity does not take its place,
whose fault will it be?" Reverend W.W. Hunter was still more blunt when he said: "Scholarship is
warmed by the holy flame of Christian zeal."
It was this zeal for making Indian sources conform to a Eurocentric belief system that is responsible for
the present unhappy state of Indian historiography. There were supplementary causes like German
nationalism and crackpot race theories that played a role but have moved to the fringes though race
occasionally raises its head in Indo-European studies. (And now in the guise of genetics tries to revive
invasion theories.) After independence, Marxism, another Eurocentric doctrine, moved to fill the vacuum
left by the retreat of Euro-colonialism. Patrizia Norelli-Bachelet's singular cosmology is simply the latest
belief system to try to encroach on the field of Vedic history.
Residue of Euro-colonialism While Macaulay is dead and European colonialism is a thing of the past,
the education and values that they fostered on the Indian elite continue to dominate the establishment. It
is hardly surprising that its representatives in academia and the media should be excessively deferential
towards Westerners and easily intimidated by presumption of racial superiority. This has allowed not
only discredited scholars like Witzel but even outright charlatans like Steve Fanner and Norelli-Bachelet
to get respectful hearing in Indian intellectual circles and the media. This is a damning indictment of the
secular' intellectual establishment in India: it has become refuge of Euro-colonial values and covert race
This has allowed some Western scholars and their Indian followers to negate new evidence and block
progress. Scholars continue to use linguistic arguments in support of their claims, but we now have a
new twist-with some New Age protagonists insisting that everything should be read in cosmological
terms though what is correct cosmology lies in the eye of the beholder. Linguistics has shown itself to be
of limited value while cosmology gives rise to fiction and fantasy. One of the main goals of educational
reform should be to get rid of this colonial residue.
Swami Vivekananda, who possessed both deep scholarship and true spirituality, said more than a
century ago: "Study Sanskrit, but along with it study Western sciences as well. Learn accuracy, ...study
and labor so that the time will come when you can put our history on a scientific basis. ...Now it is for us
to strike out an independent path of historical research for ourselves, to study the Vedas and Puranas
and the ancient annals (Itihasas) of India, and from them make it your sadhana (disciplined endeavor) to
write accurate, sympathetic and soul-inspiring history of India. It is for Indians to write Indian history ...
you never cease to labour until you have revived the glorious past of India in the consciousness of the
people. That will be the true national education, and with its advancement, a true national spirit will be
More than a century later, this is yet to happen though a few tentative steps are being taken. It will
happen only when Indian scholars shake off their inferiority complex and the last vestige of colonial
'scholarship' is rooted out.
 'Cosmology in the Rig Veda' by Patrizia Norelli-Bachelet –
published in 'The Hindu' Newpaper, on
9 July 2002 (as a response to article by David Frawley & David Witzel, who have brought to light the implausability of the
Aryan Invasion Theory).
Webpage Notes: This rejoiner was written by Robert Wilkinson in October of 2006, after he saw the 2002 Rajaram article posted in the 'Hindu Calendar'
Yahoo Group by Avtar Krishen Kaul (the group's moderator). Kaul removed the post containing Rajaram's article from the forum after receiving some complaints from members.
Ms. Norelli-Bachelet's response to Kaul is recorded in the forum,
and explains some of the history of the article. Norelli-Bachelet sent a legal-notice to the
RSS's publication Organiser, N.S. Rajaram,
and David Frawley for the slanderous article.